The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the “Irish backstop”, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement that outlined provisions to prevent a hard border in Ireland after the United Kingdom`s withdrawal from the European Union. The Protocol contains a provision on a safety net to deal with circumstances in which other satisfactory arrangements have yet to enter into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol which will be described below. The European Union also agreed to ratify the agreement on 29 January 2020 and the Council of the European Union approved the conclusion of the agreement by email on 30 January 2020.  As a result, the European Union also adopted a decision on 30 September. In January 2020, it deposited its instrument of ratification of the Agreement, thus concluding the Agreement and allowing it to enter into force at 23.m:GMT on the date of the Withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the Union on 31 January 2020. EU law on the free movement of persons, services and capital and on contributions to the EU budget does not apply. But there will be free movement of goods transported by NI to the rest of the UK and the EU. The EU and the UK will seek to facilitate trade between the UK and NI to avoid checks at NI ports and airports. The registration of new chemicals placed on the market from 1 January 2021 must be carried out in accordance with Part 2 of the REACH SI of the United Kingdom. The Withdrawal Agreement between the European Union and the United Kingdom sets out the conditions for an orderly withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU in accordance with Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union. The above-related recommendation contains a list of designated entry and exit points for CITES species, information on how CITES specimens are moved from the EU to the UK, how CITES specimens can be imported into the UK from third countries and how CITES specimens are transported through the UK to enter the EU market. As regards the Irish border issue, a Northern Ireland Protocol (the “backstop”) annexed to the Agreement sets out a fallback position that will only enter into force if effective alternative arrangements cannot be demonstrated before the end of the transition period.
If this happens, the UK will follow the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will retain some aspects of the single market until such a demonstration is achieved. None of the parties can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland where customs controls are necessary.  Both the draft Withdrawal Agreement and the Political Declaration have potentially important implications for the UK Constitution. Some constitutional issues that may arise in any bill implementing the Withdrawal Agreement are as follows: this title deals with customs procedures for goods brought into the customs territory of the United Kingdom into the customs territory of the Union and vice versa (Article 47). Procedures starting before the end of the transitional period `shall be treated as intra-Union movements in Union law as regards import and export authorisation requirements`. The Agreement also regulates the cessation of temporary storage or customs procedures (Article 49). The Withdrawal Agreement also contains provisions allowing the United Kingdom to let the United Kingdom link the Statute of the European Schools to the United Kingdom by the Convention and the accompanying rules for accredited European Schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e.
until the end of the 2020-2021 spring semester.  The UK`s comprehensive tariff plan also applies to all products imported into the UK from other third countries with which the UK does not have a specific free trade agreement or for which no additional considerations apply under WTO rules, such as . B developing countries or regions. The agreement covers issues such as money, civil rights, border regulations and dispute settlement. It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the remaining 27 EU countries and the British government of Prime Minister Theresa May, but met with resistance in the British Parliament, whose approval was required for ratification. The consent of the European Parliament would also have been required. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons rejected the Withdrawal Agreement by 432 votes to 202.  The House of Commons again rejected the agreement on March 12, 2019 by 391 votes to 242 and rejected it a third time on March 29, 2019 by 344 votes to 286. On October 22, 2019, the revised withdrawal agreement negotiated by Boris Johnson`s government took the first step in Parliament, but Johnson suspended the legislative process when the accelerated approval program failed to find the necessary support, announcing his intention to call a general election.  On 23 January 2020, Parliament ratified the agreement by adopting the Withdrawal Agreement Act; On 29 January 2020, the European Parliament gave its consent to the Withdrawal Agreement.
It was then finalised by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020. In accordance with Article 41 of the EU Withdrawal Agreement, goods placed on the EU-27 or United Kingdom markets before the end of the transition period may continue to be made available and move between the two markets until they reach the final consumer. Proof of the date on which the goods were placed on the market is required. The definitions of the terms `placing on the market` and `making available on the market` are set out in the Blue Guide. .