The Sino-Iranian deal could pave the way for future cooperation between Iran, China and Russia that would strengthen Iran`s role and influence in the Middle East and Afghanistan. Only time will tell if the deal is enough to increase Iran`s ability to counter U.S. pressure on nuclear negotiations and make China`s growing ambitions to bolster its role in the Middle East a reality. President Biden has offered to resume negotiations with Iran over the 2015 nuclear deal, which his predecessor, President Donald J. Trump, canceled three years after it was signed. U.S. officials say the two countries can take synchronized steps to bring Iran into compliance with the terms of the deal as the U.S. gradually lifts sanctions. 20. The two sides welcome the agreement reached between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the P5+1 countries on the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and consider that the agreement contributes to ensuring the peace of Iran`s nuclear activities and leads to the full realization of Iran`s legitimate rights to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy under the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The two sides stress that all relevant parties should implement the JCPOA and UN Security Council Resolution 2231 in good faith and in an inclusive and balanced manner, and reaffirm their efforts to advance the process of modernizing the Arak heavy water reactor. The agreement was signed saturday in Tehran by Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif and Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi. The deal could boost China`s influence in the Middle East and undermine U.S.
efforts to keep Iran isolated. But it was not immediately clear to what extent the deal could be implemented, while the dispute between the United States and Iran over its nuclear program is still unresolved. China has continued to defy the UNITED States by announcing its support for Iran`s reasonable demands for the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). China insists on protecting the flow of its oil imports from Iran and strives to avoid regional crises and conflicts, as well as US pressure. Iran, in turn, which sought to diversify its foreign economic relations and question the U.S. position as a security provider to the Gulf states, quickly moved closer to Beijing in the economic and political fields. For Iran, the Sino-Iranian partnership reflects Iranian resistance, the decline of the United States as a world power, and the inability of Western powers to abide by past agreements.  www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-01-23/china-iran-agree-to-expand-trade-to-600-billion-in-a-decade The foreign ministers of the two countries, Javad Zarif and Wang Yi, signed the agreement on Saturday at a ceremony at the Foreign Ministry in Tehran, according to Iran`s semi-official Fars news agency. This concluded a two-day visit by Wang that reflected China`s growing ambition to play a greater role in a region that has been a strategic concern of the United States for decades. The proposed partnership has nonetheless sparked fierce debate in Iran. M.
Zarif, the foreign minister who traveled to Beijing last October to negotiate the deal, was questioned in a hostile manner in parliament last week. At the end of Chinese President Xi Jinping`s trip to Tehran, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the People`s Republic of China announced that by reaching an important agreement in all areas of bilateral relations, as well as regional and international issues, they have established relations based on a “comprehensive strategic partnership”. Iran has a similar project partnership with India and Russia, the so-called International North-South Transport Corridor.  There are also likely developments in Pakistan`s involvement. Iran and Pakistan have had friendly relations with China in the past. The benefits of the Belt and Road Initiative have the potential to outweigh political and religious differences.  The liberalization of trade between Iran and Pakistan through railways and ports could open up development potential in both countries. There would also be a stronger united front to put pressure on Afghanistan to do the same.  This potential deal would also reduce India`s pressure on Pakistan and China.  The Iran-China Cooperation Program or 25-Year Comprehensive Strategic Partnership between the People`s Republic of Iran and the People`s Republic of China is a 25-year cooperation agreement on the development of Iran-China relations signed by the Chinese and Iranian Foreign Ministers in Tehran on March 27, 2021. the final details of the deal have not yet been officially announced.
According to a draft 25-year agreement (signed on 24 September). June 2020 in Beijing), previously available to the New York Times, China is expected to invest $400 billion in the Iranian economy during this period in exchange for a regular and sharply reduced supply of Iranian oil.    The main details of the deal were initially reported by British journalist and author Simon Watkins in an article published in Petroleum Economist on September 3, 2019, which states that the deal includes up to $280 billion for the development of Iran`s oil, gas and petrochemical sectors and another $120 billion investment in modernizing Iran`s transportation and production infrastructure.   According to the Iranian authorities, the revival of China`s One Belt One Road initiative is also part of the agreement.  The agreement also serves China`s interests in the Indian Ocean. 80% of China`s oil imports and 95% of trade with the Middle East pass through the Indian Ocean and the Strait of Malacca. Although China`s navy is considered the largest in the world, China still faces geopolitical and security challenges related to its maritime superiority in 2020, according to the Pentagon`s latest annual report, which could be solved by creating a vast network of cooperating foreign ports to protect its economic interests. The Sino-Iranian deal provides for the joint development of two ports in Iran, the port of Chabahar and a new oil terminal near the port of Jask, south of the Strait of Hormuz sea route. These two ports will be the most important in China`s Indian Ocean port chain, along with the port of Gwadar in Pakistan and the port of Kyaukpyu in Myanmar. The superiority of China`s maritime capabilities, on which it will rely for future confrontations with the United States, Japan, India and Australia, is likely to alter the balance of power in the Indian Ocean, especially as China expands its presence and economic ties with Iran. Zarif said the deal would be submitted to parliament for final approval.
He has the support of Iran`s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, two Iranian officials said. After Xi first proposed the strategic deal during his visit in 2016, negotiations on its completion were initially slow. Iran had just struck a deal with the United States and other countries to ease economic sanctions in exchange for strict restrictions on its nuclear research activities, and European companies began pouring into Iran with investments and offers of joint partnerships to develop oil and gas fields. When reports of a long-term investment deal with Iran surfaced last September, China`s Foreign Ministry dismissed the issue from the outset. Asked about this last week, a spokesman, Zhao Lijian, left open the possibility that an agreement is being prepared. Critics complained that the negotiations lacked transparency, calling the deal selling Iran`s resources, comparing it to the unilateral deals China has struck with countries like Sri Lanka. It remains to be seen how many of the ambitious projects listed in the agreement will be carried out. If the nuclear deal collapses completely, Chinese companies could also face secondary sanctions from Washington, a problem that has infuriated China in the past.  nationalinterest.org/feature/why-iran-india-are-getting-closer-18336 As with Tehran`s ongoing talks with the Russians, Iran should weigh in on the idea of giving the Chinese military access to its air and naval facilities. It should also be remembered that Iran and China are now almost united on some key issues in the Middle East, including support for the regime of Bashar al-Assad in Syria.
Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman Saeed Khatibzadeh said the deal was a “roadmap” for trade as well as economic and transport cooperation, with a special focus on the private sectors of the two countries. .